Trump International Hotel and Tower gets strength from high performance concrete
The mat foundation for the tower measures 198 ft (60 m) in length, 60 ft (18 m) in width and 10 ft (3 m) in depth, and required approximately 5,000 yd3 (3,800 m3) of concrete. Designers Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP opted to use self-consolidating concrete.
It’s a Chicago landmark. Officially measuring 1389 ft (423 m) with 98 floors, it’s the second-tallest building in the U.S., and the 11th-tallest building in the world*. The Trump International Hotel and Tower is a marvel of architecture and engineering, and its strength is founded in high-performance concrete that allows it to be taller without having to be wider.
The mat foundation for the tower measures 198 ft (60 m) in length, 60 ft (18 m) in width and 10 ft (3 m) in depth, and required approximately 5,000 yd3 (3,800 m3) of concrete. Designers Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP opted to use self-consolidating concrete (SCC), following the successful use of this technology in the construction of the Burj Khalifa building in Dubai, currently the world’s tallest building, according to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH).
SCC is highly flowable, non-segregating concrete that can spread into place, fill the formwork, and encapsulate the reinforcement without any mechanical consolidation.
SCC is a high-performance concrete that results in reduced construction time and labor costs.
Specifications for the concrete used for the Trump Tower foundation had the following requirements: the concrete temperature was limited to a maximum of 80 °F (27 °C) at the time of placement and 170 °F (77 °C) in-place. A 56-day compressive strength of 10,000 psi (69 MPa) was specified for the SCC. And while each of the specification requirements for the SCC could be met easily, their combination and the need for consistency in performance for this continuous placement posed a significant challenge.
Concrete producer Prairie Material Sales, Inc. along with their chemical admixture supplier, BASF, collaboratively designed an SCC mixture using Glenium 3030 NS high-range water reducing admixture, Rheomac VMA 362 viscosity-modifying admixture and Pozzolith 100 XR set-retarding admixture—that would adhere to the strict specifications. Testing was conducted at the project site.
The slump flow of the SCC ranged from 27 to 29 inches (680 - 740 mm) and the maximum concrete temperature as delivered was 72 °F (22 °C). The heat signatures showed that the concrete reached a maximum temperature of 160 °F (71 °C).
Over 30 ready-mixed concrete trucks from Prairie Material's Plant #32 made 600 trips to the Trump Tower site for a continuous placement of 4,680 yd3 (3,580 m3) of SCC over a 23-hour period. The concrete was conveyed into place and flowed as far as 40 ft (12 m) without segregating. The mixture was extremely consistent throughout the placement, even when the trucks were backed up entering the site. An average compressive strength of 9,100 psi (63 MPa) was achieved at 7 days, and the 28-day strength was well over the design 56-day strength of 10,000 psi (69 MPa).
Subsequently, SCC with design strength of 16,000 psi (110 MPa) was used in the transition floors and shear walls of the structure.
Completed in 2009, the Trump International Hotel and Tower features 2,600,00 ft2 (240,000 m2) of floor space, 482 luxury residential condominiums, 339 guest rooms, retail space, a 23,000 ft2 spa and three restaurants, including the five-star signature Sixteen on the 16th floor. BD+C
*According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) website, www.ctbuh.org, as of January 6, 2012.
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